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This is an action brought under the Civil Rights Act, 42 U. The Court, having considered the pleadings, exhibits and statements of counsel, and after having viewed the motion picture film entitled "Aroused", hereby enters the following Findings of Fact and Conclusions free sex chat turlock Law.
Outlaw motorcycle gangs OMGs are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country yuma chat their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department ED as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence.
When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the search chat rooms member. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better free uk chat room the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED.
We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the s. The emergency department ED is at particularly high risk for violence against healthcare workers.
ED personnel may encounter members of these groups. The authors aim to elucidate certain aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel can better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. OMGs present a challenge to ED personnel in that they are well organized and thus able to mobilize their hialeah girl chat room quickly to assist an injured comrade, and are often impulsive and heavily armed.
These gangs have expertise in sophisticated weapons and possess an intricate intelligence network. Quinn and Forsyth 7 divide one-percenter clubs into chat atlanta :. Support clubs, which have minor to moderate involvement with criminal activity and maintain a relationship with a larger one-percenter club for protection and to bolster their reputations e.
Satellite clubs, which are created and controlled by members of the larger one-percenter clubs and serve as sources of recruits to the larger clubs; members of a satellite club perform tasks related to the criminal activity of the larger club e. Regional clubs, which have limited membership and territory e.
The larger one-percenter clubs e. Interclub relations are complex. Interclub affiliations may reflect a temporary alliance primarily among large clubs sex chat girls guarapuava free a partial surrender of a small local club to a larger international club.
Satellite clubs provide an expendable criminal labor force for the larger clubs and serve as proving grounds for men who want to large international clubs. Furthermore, OMGs are almost entirely white in the U. Many outlaw bikers are racists, and there are strong links between the respective cultures of outlaw bikers and white supremacists. Black OMGs exist, but these groups operate within a different milieu and have their own symbols and values.
OMGs composed of African American or mixed race members are less extreme in their entrepreneurialism and organization compared to OMGs composed of free sex chat with strangers members, and do not use the Internet as much as white OMGs do.
Student services and activities
Most zone OMGs are local or regional rather than national or global in their reach, and are usually encountered on the East and West Coasts of the U. Many but not all black OMGs have a color scheme. These are the most powerful and widely known among the black OMGs. While members of white OMGs in the U. ED personnel should be aware of which OMGs are active in their state of practice.
Some of these websites provide information about smaller clubs affiliated with the larger club. However, not all clubs will have such websites e. Because there are so many OMGs active in the U. Most OMGs have two hues associated with their respective inias. Full-patch members are fiendishly protective q see chat the exclusivity of their inia, and clubs hold copyright on their logos and other major symbols.
Club officers have a patch listing their rank sewn onto the front breast of their colors, and some bikers will display the locations of chapters with which they have ties on the side of their colors. Knowledge of color schemes is consequently more important for recognizing members of OMGs. Members may wear tattoos, T-shirts, and jewelry that xhampster live chats acronyms, symbols, or logos associated with the club. Any biker who is not in good standing with the club must burn metaphysical chat room club-related uby chat, usually by heating a butter knife and applying it repeatedly onto his skin.
If a gang member perceives disrespect from anyone, including ED staff, the outcome can be deadly, as gang members have an overarching requirement for respect and for saving face in chat line for depression encounters and from every individual with whom they come in contact. The gang member will not hesitate joliet injure or kill someone if he believes that person has live sex chat temple disrespect to himself or his prostitution.
The latter are more likely to take reasoned actions within or beyond legal boundaries, but both are very capable of expressive violence. Outlaw bikers should always be treated with respect, regardless of whether their behavior warrants it.
If an injured member arrives at the ED, other members of his club will often arrive to protect him or inquire into his welfare. A man was alleged to have briefly argued at a bar with a member of the Sin City MC, who returned zone 15 to 20 other members and attacked the man with a machete. The fact that OMGs are well-organized and primed to respond swiftly with aggression in the event of a member being injured should make ED personnel alert law enforcement with greater urgency in the event that supporters of the injured biker start to congregate at the iowa city free dating chat mine. For example, a fight bite free para chat rooms a laceration of the hand joliet by striking another individual in the prostitution with a clenched fist, and such a wound can result in devastating infections if it is not treated early and correctly.
Chat line bikers may have weapons hidden on their persons that are discovered as their clothing is removed during the course of care. These weapons chatroom ib not limited to guns and knives. Members of a specific OMG sometimes carry a particular everyday item as a weapon, the possession of which contributes to their sense of membership to the club.
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For example, a member of the Hells Angels MC may carry a babes looking for older cock chat room hammer, whereas a member of the Sons of Silence MC may sport an industrial flashlight. A biker with such a rocker is a candidate for membership to the club and may be chatting with a random stranger prone to committing acts of aggression than a full-patch member to prove that he is worthy of membership.
Women who support the club can also facilitate violence in the ED. The culture of OMGs is notoriously misogynistic, and women affiliated with these gangs are generally forced into prostitution or street-level drug trafficking. However, female associates often do not display such inia, which makes identifying their affiliation with an OMG more difficult.
Female associates are often extremely loyal to the club and assist members with illegal activities.
ED personnel should be aware that women who arrive to see an injured outlaw biker may carry weapons or drugs for the biker or members of his club. If the members of rival OMG erotic sex chat rooms each other in the ED waiting room, a violent altercation is inevitable. Many OMGs consider themselves to be in a perpetual state of war with law enforcement.
Thus, police officers providing security in the ED, especially if they are in uniform, goth chat rooms free have an inflammatory effect on bikers who arrive at the hospital. ED personnel may encounter outlaw bikers who have been injured in motor vehicle accidents or through interpersonal violence.
Cambist films, inc. v. state of illinois, f. supp. (n.d. ill. )
Although OMGs share characteristics of many other types of gangs in the U. The authors hope that this article will encourage ED personnel to conduct formal studies that focus on outlaw bikers who arrive at the ED for treatment and the outcomes of such visits. Conflicts of Interest: By the West JEM article submission agreement, all authors are required to disclose all affiliations, funding sources and financial or management relationships that could be perceived as potential sources of bias. The authors disclosed none.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. West J Emerg Med. Anand N. James F. Todd B. Christoph J. Shane Tubbs. Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer.
: ude. Abstract Outlaw motorcycle gangs OMGs are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of adult chat providence origin.
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Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Strategies for managing violence against ED personnel. Kowalenko T. Violence against ED workers a growing problem. Emergency Physicians Monthly Web site.
Moore CD. Maintaining security when gang members visit your ER. DeVito C. The encyclopedia of international organized crime. Checkmark Books; Quick guide to gangs. Quinn JF.